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pH-Degradable, Bisphosphonate-Loaded Nanogels Attenuate Liver Fibrosis by Repolarization of M2-type Macrophages. Kaps L, Huppertsberg A, Choteschovsky N, Klefenz A, Durak F, Schörs B, Diken M, Eichler E, Rosigkeit S, Schmitt S, Leps C, Schulze A, Foerster F, Bockamp E, De Geest BG, Koynov K, Räder HJ, Tenzer S, Marini F, Schuppan D, Nuhn L. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS) in press



The N501Y mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is associated with enhanced morbidity in obese and aged mice and is neutralized by convalescent and post-vaccination human sera. Rathnasinghe R, Jangra S, Cupic A, Martínez-Romero C, Mulder LCF, Kehrer T, Yildiz S, Choi A, Mena I, De Vrieze J, Aslam S, Meekins DA, McDowell CD, Balaraman V, Richt JA, De Geest BG, Miorin L, PVI study group , Krammer F, Simon V , García-Sastre A, Schotsaert M. Nature Communications, in press



In Situ Tumor Vaccination with Calcium-linked Degradable Coacervate Nanocomplex Co-delivering Photosensitizer and TLR7/8 agonist to Trigger Effective Anti-tumor Immune Responses. Liu Y, Li H, Zhao H, Hao Y, Herck S, Xu Z, Wang G, Wang X, Zhang X, Ge X, Li X, Yang A, Chen H, Zou J, Wang W, De Geest BG, Zhang Z. Advanced Therapeutics, in press


Squaric ester-based, pH-degradable nano gels: modular nano carriers for safe, systemic administration of toll-like receptor 7/8 agonistic immune modulators. Huppertsberg A, Kaps L, Zhong Z, Schmitt S, Stickdorn J, Deswarte K, Combes F, Czysch C, De Vrieze J, Kasmi S, Choteschovsky N, Klefenz A, Medina-Montano C, Winterwerber P, Chen C, Bros M, Lienenklas S, Sanders NN, Koynov K, Schuppan D, Lambrecht BN, David SA, DE Geest BG, Nuhn L Journal of the American Chemical Society 2021, in press

From design to the clinic: engineered nanobiomaterials for immune normalization therapy of cancer

Saeed M, Chen F, Ye J, Shi Y, Lammers T, De Geest BG, Ping Z, Yu H. Advanced Materials 2021, e2008094.

Delivery routes matter: safety and efficacy intratumoral immunotherapy . De Lombaerde E, De Wever O, De Geest BG. Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021, 1875, 188526.

Sterilizing Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Mice by a Single-Shot and Lipid Amphiphile Imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 Agonist-Adjuvanted Recombinant Spike Protein Vaccine. Jangra S, De Vrieze J, Choi A, Rathnasinghe R, Laghlali G, Uvyn A, Van Herck S, Nuhn L, Deswarte K, Zhong Z, Sanders NN, Lienenklaus S, David SA, Strohmeier S, Amanat F, Krammer F, Hammad H, Lambrecht BN, Coughlan L, García-Sastre A, De Geest BG, Schotsaert M.  Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2021

A lipid-polyglutamate nanoparticle vaccine platform. Van Lysebetten D, Malfanti A, De Swarte K, Koynov K, Golba, B, Ye T, Zhong Z, Kasmi S, Lamoot A, Chen Y, Van Herck S, Lambrecht BN, Sanders N, Lienenklaus S, David SA, Vicent MJ, De Koker S, De Geest BG. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2021, 13, 6011.

Covalent cell surface conjugation of nanoparticles by a combination of metabolic labelling and click chemistry. Lamoot A, Uvyn A, Kasmi S, De Geest BG. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2021, 60, 6320.

Biomaterials applications of cyclic polymers. Golba B, Benetti EM, De Geest BG. Biomaterials 2021, 267, 120468.​

Recombinant extracellular vesicles as biological reference material for method development, data normalization and assessment of (pre-)analytical variables. Geeurickx E, Lippens L, Rappu P, De Geest BG, De Wever O, Hendrix A. Nature Protocols 2021, 16, 603.

Design of pH-degradable polymer-lipid amphiphiles using a ketal-functionalized RAFT chain transfer agent, De Vrieze J, Van Herck S, Nuhn L, De Geest BG, Macromolecular Rapid Communications 2021, 42, e2000696.



Engineering strategies of lymph node targeting immune activation. Chen Y, De Koker S, De Geest BG. Accounts of Chemical Research 2020 , 53, 2055. 

An imidazoquinoline-conjugmated degradable coacervate for local cancer immunotherapy. Li H, Van Herck S, Liu Y, Had Y, Ding X, Nuhn L, Thing Z, Combes F, Sanders NN, De Koker S, Lienenklaus S, Davis SA, Wang Y, De Geest BG. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 2020, 6, 4993.

Current status of COVID-19 (pre)clinical vaccine development.Ye T,  Zhong Z, Garcia-Sastre A, Schotsaert M, De Geest BG. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020

Prolonged innate immune activation by enzyme-sensitive imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist prodrug vesicles, Wang B, Van Herck S, Chen Y, Bai X, Zhong Z, De Swarte K, Lambrecht BN, Sanders NN, Lienenklaus S, Scheeren H, David SA, Kiessling F, Lammers T, De Geest BG,* Shi Y*Journal of the American Chemical Society 2020

Multivalent antibody-recruiting macromolecules: linking increased binding affinities with enhanced innate immune killing. Uvyn A, De Geest BG, ChemBioChem 2020 

Nanomedicine and cancer immunotherapy,Yu HJ, De Geest BG, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2020

Nanomedicine-mediated altering of the pharmacokinetic profile of small molecule cancer immunotherapeutics, Van Herck S, De Geest BG, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2020

Fusing Antigens and Adjuvants into Traceless Nanogels, De Geest BG, ACS Central Science 2020

Tweaking the acid-sensitivity of transiently thermoresponsie polyacrylamide with cyclic acetal repeating units, Van Herck S, De Geest BG, Science China Chemistry 2020


Immiscibility of chemically alike amorphous polymers: Phase separation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline). Schoolaert E, Merckx R, Becelaere J, Everaerts M, Van Guyse J, Sedlacek O, De Geest B, Van den Mooter G, D'hooge D, De Clerck K, Hoogenboom R. Macromolecules 2020

Functionalization of Nanoparticles with extracellular vesicle membranes, Van Deun J, Roux Q, Deville S, Van Acker T,  Rappu P, Miinalainen O, Heino J, Vanhaecke F, De Geest BG, De Wever O, Hendrix  A, Cells 2020

Asynthetic rhamnose glycopolymer cell surface receptor for endogenous antibody recruitment, De Coen R, Nuhn L, Perera C, Arista-Romero M, Risseeuw M, Freyn A, Nachbagauer R, Albertazzi L, Van Calenbergh S, Spiegel DA, Peterson BR, De Geest BG, Biomacromolecules 2020, 21, 792.

Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) Conjugates with Salicylic Acid via Degradable Modular Ester Linkages. Bernhard Y,  Sedlacek O, Van Guyse J, Johan J, Zhong Z,  De Geest BG, Hoogenboom R, Biomacromolecules 2020, in press

Cancer nanomedicine meets immunotherapy: opportunities and challenges. Sun Q,  Bai X, Sofias AM, van der Meel R,  Ruiz-Hernandez E, Storm G, Hennink WE, De Geest B, Kiessling FYu H, Lammers T, Shi Y,  Science China Chemistry 2020

Poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) conjugates with doxorubicin: From synthesis of high drug loading water-soluble constructs to in vitro anti-cancer properties, Sedlacek O, Van Driessche A, Uvyn A, De Geest BG, Hoogenboom R, Journal of Controlled Release 2020

Control over Imidazoquinoline Immune Stimulation by pH-Degradable Poly(norbornene) Nanogels, Kockelmann J, Stickdorn J, Kasmi S, De Vrieze J, Pieszka M, Ng D, David SA, De Geest BG, Nuhn L, Biomacromolecules 2020, in press

ER stress in antigen presenting cells promotes NKT cell activation through endogenous neutral lipids, Govindarajan S, Verheugen E, Venken K, Gaublomme D, Cloots E, Gysens F, De Geest BG, Cheng TY, Moody D, Janssens S, Drennan M, Elewaut D, EMBO Reports 2020

Molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy, Saeed M, Xu Z, De Geest BG, Xu H, Yu H, Bioconjugate Chemistry 2020

Zebrafish Embryos Allow Prediction of Nanoparticle Circulation Times in Mice and Facilitate Quantification of Nanoparticle-Cell Interactions, Dal NK, Kocere A, Wohlmann J, Van Herck S, Bauer TA, Resseguier J, Bagherifam S, Hyldmo H, Barz M, De Geest BG, Fenaroli F, Small 2020, 16, e1906719

Increased levels of systemic LPS-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles in patients with intestinal barrier dysfunction, Tulkens J, Vergauwen G, Van Deun J,  Geeurickx E, Dhondt B, Lippens L, De Scheerde MAr, Miinalainen I, Pekka R, De Geest BG, Vandecasteele K, Laukens D, Vandekerckhove L, Denys H, Vandesompele J,De Wever O, Hendrix A, Gut 2020, 69, 191.

Transient multivalent nanobody targeting to CD206-expressing cells via pH-degradable nanogels

Scheger M, Bolli E, Pombo Antunes AR, Arnouk S, Stickdorn J, Van Driessche A, Schild H, Grabbe S, De Geest BG, Van Ginderachter JA, Nuhn L. Cells, in press

Prilling of API/fatty acid suspensions: Screening of additives for drug release modification, De Coninck E, Vanhoorne V, Boone M, Van Assche G, De Geest BG, De Beer T, Vervaet C, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2020, 576, 119022.

Recombinant DnaK Orally Administered Protects Axenic European Sea Bass Against Vibriosis, Yaacob EN, Norouzitallab P, De Geest BG, Bajak A, Dierckens K, Bossier P, Vanrompay D, Frontiers in Immunology 2020, 1:3162


Cell surface clicking of antibody-recruiting polymers to metabolically azide-labeled cancer cells. Uvyn A, De Coen R, De Swarte K, De Wever O, Lambrecht BN, De Geest BG

Chemical Communications 2019, 55, 10952.

Potent lymphatic transportation and spatial control over innate immune activation by polymer-lipid amphiphile conjugates of small molecule TLR7/8 agonists. De Vrieze J, Louage B, De Swarte K, Zhong Z, De Coen R, Van Herck S, Nuhn L, Frich CK, Zelikin AN, Lienenklaus S, Sanders NN, David SA, Lambrecht BN, De Geest BG. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2019, 58, 15390.

Efficient innate immune killing of cancer cells triggered by cell surface anchoring of multivalent antibody-recruiting polymers. Uvyn A, De Coen T, Gruijs M, Tuk CW, De Vrieze J, van Egmond M, De Geest BG

Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2019, 58, 12988.

A synthetic transiently thermoresponsie homopolymers with UCST behaviour within a physiologically relevant window. Zhang Z, Li H, Kasmi S, Van Herck S, Deswarte K, Lambrecht BN, Hoogenboom R, Nuhn L De Geest BG

Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2019, 58, 7866.

Water-soluble Withaferin A polymer prodrugs van a drug-functionalized RAFT CTA approach. Van Herck S, Hassannia B, Louage B, Compostizo RP, De Coen R, Vanden Berghe W, Vanden Berghe T, De Geest BG

European Polymer Journal 2019, 110, 313.

Unexpected Reactivity Switch in the Statistical Copolymerization of 2 Oxazolines and 2-Oxazines Enabling the One-Step Synthesis of Amphiphilic Gradient Copolymers. Sedlacek O, Lava K, Verbraeken B, Kasmi S, De Geest BG, Hoogenboom R. Journal of the American Chemical Society, in press, doi: 10.1021/jacs.9b02607. 

Nanomedicine and macroscale materials in immuno-oncology. Sun Q, Barz M, De Geest BG, Diken M, Hennink WE, Kiessling F, Lammers T, Shi Y. Chemical Society Reviews 2019, 48, 351.

The future of Layer-by-Layer assembly: a tribute to ACS Nano associate editor Helmuth Möhwald. Zhao S, Caruso F, Dahne L, Decher G, De Geest BG, Fan J, Fliu N, Gogotsi Y, Hammond PT, Hersam MC, Khademhosseini, Kotov N, Leporati S, Li Y, Lisdat F, Liz-Marzan LM, Moya S, Mulvaney P, Rogach AL, Roy S, Shchukin DG, Skirtag AG, Stevens MM, Sukhorukov GB, Weiss PS, Yue Z, Zhu D, Parak WJ. ACS Nano 2019, 13, 6151.

Modular core-shell polymeric nanoparticles mimicking viral organization for vaccination. Lou B, De Beuckelaer A, Boonstra E, Li D, De Geest BG, De Koker S, Mastrobattista E, Hennink WE. Journal of Controlled Release 2019, 293, 48.

Prilling of API/fatty acid suspensions: Processability and characterisation. De Coninck E, Vanhoorne V, Elmahdy A, Boone M, Van Assche G, Markl D, De Geest BG, De Beer T, Vervaet C. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2019, 572, 118756.


pH-sensitive hydrazone linked doxorubicin-nanogels via polymeric activated ester scaffolds: synthesis, assembly, in vitro and in vivo evaluation in tumor bearing zebrafish. Van Driessche A, Kocere A, Everaert H, Nuhn L, Van Herck S, Griffiths G, Fenaroli F, De Geest BG. Chemistry of Materials 2018, 30, 8587.

Lymph node targeted immune-activation by engineered block copolymer amphiphiles - TRL7/8 agonist conjugates. Van Herck S, Deswarte K, Nuhn L, Zhong Z, Portela Catani JP, Li Y, Sanders NN, Lienenklaus S, De Koker S, Lambrecht BN, David SA, De Geest BG. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2018, 140, 14300.

Nanoparticle-conjugate TLR7/8 agonist localized immunotherapy provokes safe antitumoral
Lutz Nuhn, Stefaan De Koker, Sandra Van Lint, Zifu Zhong, João Portela Catani, Francis
Combes, Kim Deswarte, Yupeng Li, Bart N. Lambrecht, Stefan Lienenklaus, Niek N. Sanders,
Sunil A David, Jan Tavernier, Bruno G. De Geest. Advanced Materials 2018, 30, e18303397.

. FRET monitoring of intracellular ketal hydrolysis in synthetic nanoparticles

Nuhn L, Van Herck S,  Best A, Deswarte K, Kokkinopoulou M, Lieberwirth I, Koynov K, Lambrecht BN, De Geest BG, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2018, 57, 10760.

Transiently Thermoresponsive Acetal Polymers for Safe and Effective Administration of Amphotericin B as Vaccine Adjuvant. Van Herck Simon, Van Hoecke L, Louage B, Lybaert L, De Coen R, Kasmi S, Esser-Kahn A, David S, Nuhn L, Schepens B, Saelens X,; De Geest BG. Bioconjugate Chemistry 2018, 29, 748.

Potent anti-viral vaccine adjuvant based on pH-degradable nanogels with covalently linked small molecule imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist. Nuhn L, Van Hoecke L, Deswarte K, Schepens B, Li Y, Lambrecht BN, De Koker S, David SA, Saelens X, De Geest BG. Biomaterials 2018, 178, 643.

Targeting protumoral tutor-associated macrophages with nanobody-functionalized nano gels through SPAAC-ligation. Nuhn L, Bolli E, Massa S, Vandenberghe I, Movahedi K, Devreese B, Van Ginderachter J, De Geest BG. Bioconjugate chemistry 2018, 29, 2394.

Post-PEGylated and crosslinked polymeric ssRNA nanocomplexes as adjuvants targeting lymph nodes with increased cytolytic T cell inducing properties. Lou B, De Beuckelaer A, Dakwar GR, Remaut K, Grooten J, Braeckmans K, De Geest BG, Mastrobattista E, De Koker S, Hennink  WE, Journal of Controlled Release, in press

Immunoengineering through cancer vaccines - a personalized and multi-step vaccine approach towards precise cancer immunity. Lybaert L, Vermaelen K, De Geest BG, Nuhn L, Journal of Controlled Release 2018, 289, 125.

Engineering the immune system with particles, step-by-step. De Geest BG. Molecular Immunology 2018, 98, 25.

Nano-targeted double-edged induction of ferroptosis eradicates high-risk neuroblastoma

Hassannia B, Wiernicki B, Ingold I, Qu F, Van Herck S, Tyurina YY, Bayır H, Abhari BA, Friedmann Angeli JP, Choi SM, Meul E, Heyninck K, Declerck K, Chirumamilla CS, Lahtela-Kakkonen M, Van Camp G, Krysko DV, Ekert PG, Fulda S, De Geest BG, Conrad M, Kagan VE, Vanden Berghe W, Vandenabeele P, Vanden Berghe T

Journal of Clinical Investigations 2018, 128, 3341.

EPR-like extravasation of nanoparticles from the vasculature into tuberculosis granulomas in zebrafish and mouse models. Fenaroli F, Repnik U, Xu Y, Johann K, Van Herck S, Dey P, Skjedal F, Frei D, Bagherifam S, Kocere A, Haag R, De Geest BG, Barz M, Russell D, Griffith G, ACS Nano 2018, 12, 8646.

Hyaluronic Acid Conjugates of TLR7/8 Agonists for Targeted Delivery to Secondary Lymphoid Tissue. Yoo E, Salyer A, Brush M, Li Y, Trautman K, Shukla N, De Beuckalaer A, Lienenklaus S, Deswarte K, Lambrecht BN, De Geest BG, David S, Bioconjugate Chemistry 2018, 29, 2741.

A versatile method for the selective core-crosslinking of hyaluronic acid-based nanogels via ketone-hydrazide chemistry: from chemical characterization to in vivo biodistribution. F Pelegrin Garcia, MRippe, M Vianna, T - Fernandes Stefanello, B Louage, S Van Herck , L Sancey, JL Coll, BG De Geest, C Vataru Nakamura, R Auzély-Velty, Biomaterials Science 2018, 6, 1754.

Heterocellular 3D scaffolds as biomimetic to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment of peritoneal metastases in vitro and in vivo Biomaterials. De Jaeghere E, De Vlieghere E, Van Hoorick J, Van Vlierberghe S, Wagemans G, Pieters L, Melsens E, Praet M, Van Dorpe J, Boone M, Ghobeira R, De Geyter N, Bracke M, Vanhove C, Neyt S, Berx G, De Geest BG, Dubruel P, Declercq H, Ceelen W, De Wever O , Biomaterials 2018, 158, 95.

Biocatalytically active thin films via self-assembly of 2-deoxy-D-ribose-5-phosphate aldolase/PNIPAm conjugates. Zhang S, Bisterfeld C, Bramski,  Vanparijs N, De Geest BG, Pietruszka J, Böker A, Reinicke S, Bioconjugate Chemistry 2018, 29, 104.

The relevance of shear, sedimentation and diffusion during spin freezing, as potential first step of a continuous freeze-drying process for unit doses. Lammens J, Mortier STFC, De Meyer L, Vanbillemont B, Van Bockstal PJ, Van Herck S, Corver J, Nopens I, Vanhoorne V, De Geest BG, De Beer T, Vervaet C. International  Journal of Pharmaceutics  2018, 539, 1.

Recombinant ferritin-H induces immunosuppression in European sea bass larvae (Dicentrarchus labrax) rather than immunostimulation and protection against a Vibrio anguillarum infection. Nursaliza E, Bosier P, Dee Geest BG, Vanrompay D, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 2018, 204, 19.

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